Perfumes and fragrances are one of the most difficult accessories to define and to pin down – the reason being that they are such a personal choice and have so many elusive qualities Even though perfume and fragrances are expensive (for both men and women), they are well worth the money, as they can conjure up a host of feelings, and be a pleasant experience for both the wearer thereof, as well as the people close to the person wearing the fragrance. 바카라
Frequently asked questions about perfumes and fragrances
What is the difference between cologne, eau de toilette, parfum, etc…?
Simple. The concentrations are different. Eau de cologne is the least concentrated form of a fragrance, then comes the eau de toilette, followed by the eau de parfum, and finally the most concentrated, the parfum.
What is a “nose”?
A nose is a person who creates fragrances. There was a time when the job of perfume-maker was handed down from father to son but times have changed and now there are several schools dedicated to the science of perfume-making. At this time only three major French perfume-makers (Chanel, Guerlain, and Jean Patou) have their own in-house blender. Underneath a “nose” at work at the perfume organ.
Is it true that fragrances change scent on different people?
Yes. Each of us has our own unique body chemistry based on our genes, skin type, hair color, and even the type of lifestyle we lead and the environment in which we live in. So it is important not to purchase a fragrance because you smelled it in a magazine ad or on someone else. Try it on your own skin to see how it reacts with your own body chemistry.
As one gets older does the sense of smell diminish?
Yes. As we age our sense of smell slowly begins to diminish. As a result some older individuals apply more fragrance than needed.
How long will a fragrance last on me?
Fragrances are designed to last about 4 hours or so. Some people may notice that a particular fragrance lasts all day but by then it will not smell as it’s supposed to. You must reapply once or twice a day.
Do I apply fragrance all over the body?
Yes. If a fragrance is only applied to the neck or behind the ears the fragrance will rise and disappear. It is important to apply a fragrance all over the body to ensure the scent lasts.
How does skin type play a role?
Oily skin holds scents much more than dry skin. So those with dry skin need to reapply more often.
Is it important to change fragrances according to the different seasons of the year?
Yes, since heat increases the intensity of a fragrance. There are certain fragrances that are more appropriate for summer and other stronger scents that would be better for winter use. A good guideline to follow is to wear lighter scents in the summer and stronger in the winter. Citrus scents are perfect for summer while orientals are better for winter.
How does the color of your hair make a difference?
Yes. Blondes with a fair skin will be happiest with long-lasting multi-floral creations. Their skin is often dry causing fragrances that are too subtle to evaporate rapidly. Brunettes usually have medium-to-dark skin which contains natural oils, allowing scents to last longer. Dramatic Orientals are often favorites. Redheads have extremely fair and delicate skin which may be incompatible with fragrances which have predominant green notes.
How long can I keep my fragrance stored?
Fragrances don’t last forever. There are certain precautions though that will ensure the quality of the fragrance. Keep the bottle in a dry, dark place. Heat can also destroy a fragrance so keep it from extreme temperatures. Colognes and eau de toilettes (not parfum) may be kept in the refrigerator in order to maintain their freshness. Fragrances usually last 3 years from the date they were manufactured, not the day you buy it. Certain clearance centers which I won’t name but everyone knows who they are carry bottles that are at least 2 or 3 years old. Buy from department stores and reputable perfumeries to ensure the quality of the fragrance.
History of fragrances and perfume Discount Perfume was first used by the Egyptians as part of their religious rituals. The two principal methods of use at this time were the burning of incense and the application of balms and ointments. Perfumed oils were applied to the skin for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes.
During the Old and Middle Kingdoms, perfumes were reserved exclusively for religious rituals such as cleansing ceremonies. Then during the New Kingdom (1580-1085 BC) they were used during festivals and Egyptian women also used perfumed creams and oils as toiletries and cosmetics and as preludes to lovemaking.
The use of perfume then spread to Greece, Rome, and the Islamic world. And it was the Islamic community that kept the use of perfumes since the spread of Christianity led to a decline in the use of perfume. With the fall of the Roman Empire, perfume’s influence dwindled. It was not until the twelfth century and the development of international trade that this decline was reversed.
Perfume enjoyed huge success during the seventeenth century. Perfumed gloves became popular in France and in 1656, the guild of glove and perfume-makers was established. The use of perfume in France grew steadily. The court of Louis XV was even named “the perfumed court” due to the scents, which were applied daily not only to the skin but also to clothing, fans and furniture.
The eighteenth century saw a revolutionary advance in perfumery with the invention of eau de Cologne. This refreshing blend of rosemary, neroli, bergamot and lemon was used in a multitude of different ways: diluted in bath water, mixed with wine, eaten on a sugar lump, as a mouthwash, an enema or an ingredient for a poultice, injected directly… and so on. The variety of eighteenth-century perfume containers was as wide as that of the fragrances and their uses.
Sponges soaked in scented vinaigres de toilette were kept in gilded metal vinaigrettes. Liquid discount perfume came in beautiful Louis XIV-style pear-shaped bottles. Glass became increasingly popular, particularly in France with the opening of the Baccarat factory in 1765.
As with industry and the arts, perfume was to undergo profound change in the nineteenth century. Changing tastes and the development of modern chemistry laid the foundations of perfumery, as we know it today. Alchemy gave way to chemistry and new fragrances were created.
The French Revolution had in no way diminished the taste for perfume, there was even a fragrance called “Parfum a la Guillotine.” Under the post-revolutionary government, people again dared to express a penchant for luxury goods, including perfume. A profusion of vanity boxes containing perfumes appeared in the 19th century.
Due to its jasmine, rose and orange-growing trades, the town of Grasse in Provence established itself as the largest production center for raw materials. The statutes of the perfume-makers of Grasse were passed in 1724.
Paris became the commercial counterpart to Grasse and the world center of perfume. Perfume houses such as Houbigant (produces Quelques Fleurs, still very popular today), Lubin, Roger & Gallet, and Guerlain were all based in Paris.
Soon bottling became more important. Perfume maker Francois Coty formed a partnershipwith Rene Lalique. Lalique then produced bottles for Guerlain, D’Orsay, Lubin, Molinard, Roger & Gallet and others. Baccarat then joined in, producing the bottle for Mitsouko (Guerlain), Shalimar (Guerlain) and others. Brosse glassworks created the memorable bottle for Jeanne Lanvin’s Arpege, and the famous Chanel No.5.
1921- Couturier Gabrielle Chanel launches her own brand of perfume, created by Ernest Beaux; she calls it Chanel No.5 because it was the fifth in a line of fragrances Ernest Beaux presented her. Ernest Beaux was the first to use aldehydes in perfumery. In fact, Chanel No.5 was the first completely synthetic mass-market fragrance.
The 1930’s saw the arrival of the leather family of fragrances, and florals also became quite popular with the emergence of Worth’s Je Reviens (1932), Caron’s Fleurs de Rocaille (1933) and Jean Patou’s Joy (1935). With French perfumery at it’s peak in the 1950’s, other designers such as Christian Dior, Jacques Fath, Nina Ricci, Pierre Balmain.. and so on, started creating their own scents.